Cannabis has played a vital part in shaping the human civilization— and its reference is speculated in the Bible where Jesus, as the first marijuana activist uses healing potion (hemp) for treating people or through Hindu mythological lord— Shiva, who puffs cannabis for recreational.
Whatever may be the history, the only constant with cannabis is its different medicinal perspective across the centuries. Different eras have different stories to tell as they get volleyed between negative and positive thoughts.
We are fortunate that the world of internet has brought a breadth of view regarding cannabis, and we— as ordinary citizens know a lot more about its classes, Genesis, and health benefits.
With the better democratization of information at social touchpoints, we now know that cannabis has a class of compounds— cannabinoids.
Not one or two, but more than 110 types of cannabinoids are found in the cannabis— each with unique properties (both medical or commercial).
If you don’t know what cannabinoid is, you can think of your blood family gathering in a hall. When the whole family with related features and genes unite, you form a cluster class. Similarly, the cannabinoid is a cluster of related compounds.
Each cannabinoid has diversified cannabinoid effects. The active users of cannabis believe that we can reap the maximum medical potency at a raw and unheated form.
The more it is exposed to nature, i.e., heat, oxygen, and radiation; the healing impact of the substance gets diluted.
Let’s go through the list of important cannabinoids, and check what it has to offer the cannabis enthusiasts:
CBGA (CannabigerolIc Acid)
- It is the cannabinoid which sits at the top of the hierarchy of cannabinoid tree.
- It is the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesized.
- It is formed by combining geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid.
Although it is the mother of all other cannabinoids, nothing is known about its medical worth. Few tests were conducted in the past to determine its antibacterial behavior, but no specific benefits were traced.
THCa (Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid)
- It is a cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant in the acidic form, falls right below cannabigerolic acid in the cannabinoid pyramid.
- It is not the same as THC.
- It is not a psychotropic compound.
The studies are still at infancy, but it has slowly shown the therapeutic character. They are:
- Neuroprotection against neurodegenerative diseases
- Anti-inflammatory analgesic properties against atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis
- Probable anti-proliferative signs for resolving prostate cancer
- Antiemetic properties for nursing vomiting and nausea
The cannabinoid research and development team are closely monitoring the behavior of THCa on the human body, and maybe, shortly, we might start relying on it substantially.
One of the positives: THCa can easily be measured by medical cannabis testing. It allows patients to scrutinize the amount of THCa in a plant, and how much they need.
- It is one of the most critical cannabinoids of the cannabis plant (discovered in 1964).
- THCa dries to yield THC (the reason why THCa is known as the precursor of THC).
- By 1990, it was found that humans have cannabinoid receptors in their bodies.
- It is known for its psychoactive interaction with these receptors (CB1 and CB2).
- It binds these receptors causing a change in how cells function.
It is the most studied cannabinoid and this why we deeply know about its medical effect. Some of the results are:
- It turns off vomiting and nausea
- It is expected to trigger the appetite
- It appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect (almost 20 times stronger than aspirin)
- It is found to be a healthy neuroprotective antioxidant.
- It has shown probable character to treat PTSD and Tourette syndrome.
- It has also shown positives in treating anorexia and spasticity.
- It is being believed to stave off Migraines, Crohn’s disease, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, Glaucoma.
The behavior of THC has been observed on animals and human respondents over the years. As of now, no one has ever overdosed on THC, but usually, if he does, the person might suffer from anxiety or perceive harm that something nasty is coming their way.
One of the positives: The brainstem doesn’t have CB1 and CB2 receptors, the stem which is responsible for controlling breathing and heartbeats. So, in the case of THC overdose, there won’t be any impact on breathing and beating.
- It is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid.
- While cannabigerol grows, most of the constituent is converted into THC automatically.
- You can call it a precursor of CBD and THC.
Much like THCa, we don’t have an ocean of knowledge about CBG’s medical traits. So far now, we have found that:
- It has an affirming effect on rats as a well-tolerated appetite stimulant.
- It may have an impact in protecting neurons in Huntington’s disease in rats.
- It can clinically be considered for treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
- It has demonstrated antibacterial properties in a structure-activity study.
- It has indicated tumor-inhibiting properties which may prevent colon carcinogenesis.
99% of the CBG tests are conducted on animals like mice and rats. However, the pace of study and its budding effect on the specimen may open the doors for humans.
One of the positives: Research shows that it has low-affinity CB1 receptor antagonist. If it can add value to the medical system without agonizing the cannabinoid receptors of the brain, I don’t see any problem in its legal status.
- It’s another important cannabinoid found naturally in the cannabis plant, sometimes abundance in percentage.
- Unlike THC, CBG, THCA, it belongs to “CBGVA” family which is produced from the combination of geranyl pyrophosphate with divarinolic acid (and not olivetolic acid).
- It has an interesting and unusual reaction with CB1 receptors. At low dosage, it blocks it, and at a higher dosage, it binds it.
- It has an antipsychotic effect which has therapeutic power.
THCV is one of the primary pharmacological components, and cannabinoid research and development teams are actively busy in searching its medical use. As of now, they have found:
- The psychotic effect can ameliorate the adversaries of schizophrenia.
- It has placed its position in one of the four anticonvulsant cannabinoids.
- Further, it interacts with other receptors to behave as a potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory element.
- Also, it has shown possible prospect in treating pathophysiologic hyperexcitability states such as epilepsy, which makes it anti-epileptiform.
- It has also displayed an anti-seizure tendency.
- It is likely to benefit patients suffering from obesity-associated glucose intolerance.
Like any other cannabis constituent, the study of THCV is very complicated, but the modulating impact on the healths of the respondents would always push the researchers to move one step ahead.
One of the positives: The cannabis plant may have a huge portion of THCV. Its large presence in the plants can waive off the medical dependency on THC and CBD (considering them legal).
- Akin to THC, CBD is the most studied cannabinoid found in the cannabis plants.
- It was discovered in 1940.
- It follows the same path of production as that of THC and CBG.
- It is found that it interacts with the variety of receptors including cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), biological targets, and neurotransmitter receptors.
- It is a non-psychoactive component which behaves opposite to the THC.
- It is the power to mute the overdosing effect of THC without changing the level of it.
When it comes to medical research, its non-psychedelic behavior with the human body makes it a particular component for study. Since it doesn’t influence the brainstem, the legal status quo of the substance has a better position in countries like the United States in comparison to the related components like THC and THCV. Let’s go through some of the CBD medical development so far:
- The CBD based products reduce seizure frequency.
- It has not only thrown the probability of suppressing inflammation but also the chemicals which cause inflammation.
- Like THCV, it is one of the four anticonvulsant cannabinoids used for controlling the seizure threshold. The only difference is, it is non-psychotomimetic compound while the other three are.
- They may also act as a therapeutic agent in handling the cancer cells where the bad cells suicide and good cells are preserved.
- In the context of sleep, it has shown biphasic nature— alerts your mind in lower dosage and sedates at higher dosage causing sleep.
- It is also viewed as neuron protection to the damaged neurons.
- Its future perspective is also seen in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
It is tested for a variety of diseases (maybe the most number of conditions), and in the majority of tests, it has favorable inferences.
One of the positives: It is rapidly gaining the legal status in the federal portion of the United States. Its contrary action to those of THC makes it look “sacred” in the eyes of the authority.
- It is another cannabinoid compound registered in the cannabis plant.
- The breakdown of THC forms it; hence, it is sometimes referred to the breakdown product.
- It is a bit different from other cannabinoids because it is the result of breakdown or degradation and not directly synthesized from the plant.
- It is psychoactive and prominently found in the cannabis which has grown old.
Since it is present in trace amount in the cannabis, research labs don’t have more extensive access to it. With whatever the limited access they have, so far, these are the conclusions to look after:
- It can knock off pain through its analgesic properties.
- Similar to THC, CBD, THCV; it falls in their group as an anticonvulsant.
- It has also showcased its anti-inflammatory properties.
- The structure-activity study also checks its potential antibacterial properties.
- It has also manifested appetite stimulant attributes.
Many researchers consider it as the most psychotropic cannabinoid. Its legal status is uncertain in significant parts of the world.
One of the positives: The growers and breeders may alter the gene to extract higher a percentage of CBN from the rich strain.
- It is the third cannabinoid spawned from the CGBA.
- It is difficult to find the trace of CBC in the plant (as it is also present in trace amount).
- It is non-psychedelic.
Studies are being made regarding its pharmacological properties. The meticulous research has resulted in these medical conclusions:
- It can interact with anandamide receptors. Such interaction may allow it to fight intestinal cancer cells.
- It has revealed the inhibitory effect on mucosal inflammation.
- It may fend off intestinal dysmotility by the precise inhibitory mechanism.
- It may neutralize depression by acting as an antidepressant.
Since it has no psychoactive effect on the body, scientists can put it in deeper study space without the interruption of the government.
One of the positives: You may expect CBC infused products like those of CBD due to its non-psychedelic impact.
These cannabinoids have surely bookmarked their presence in the chapters of our lives, and with the canna-awareness hitting popular, cannabinoid research and development department would gain the motivation to unearth more exciting details.
What’s your favorite cannabinoid? What would you try, if given an option to choose?